Hallervorden-Spatz disease now more commonly known as Pantothenate kinase -associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is a rare, inherited neurological movement disorder.

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Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent serious long-term disability and life threatening complications. These disorders share certain similar symptoms and are distinguished in part by the dissease at which such symptoms appear.

Spontaneous presentation on a patient with Hallervorden-Spatz disease in the absence of neuroleptic drugs. Gothwal S, Nayan S. He presented with extrapyramidal symptoms and characteristic “eye-of-the-tiger” sign on magnetic resonance imaging.

The known mutation in Agarwal community is pathogenic mutation 1c. For example, your doctor may prescribe:. Agents halledvorden to relieve rigidity and spasticity may prove effective against dysarthria while methscopolamine bromide can deter excessive drooling.

Gradually, she developed motor difficulties in hands, dysphagia, and dysarthria. What Causes Hallervorden-Spatz Disease?

Rare Disease Database

This is a progressive degeneration of the nerve-rich membrane lining the eyes retinaresulting in tunnel vision, night blindness, and loss of peripheral vision.

Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome with Seizures. Open in a separate window. New genes reveal major role for iron in neurodegeneration. Anesthesia for patients with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration Hallervorden-Spatz disease? Botulinum toxin injections also can improve dystonic muscles.


Neuroacanthocytosis is a general term for a group of rare progressive disorders characterized by the association of misshapen, spiny red blood cells acanthocytosis and neurological abnormalities, especially movement disorders.

Hallervorden-Spatz disease

An MRI usually shows iron deposits in the basal ganglia. MR and pathological findings of a rare case. Hallervorden-Spatz disease or ceroid storage disease with abnormal isotope scan?

MRI scans revealed small hyper intensity in the inner part of both GP, surrounded by the hypo-intense rim peripherally on T2 [ Hzllervorden 2 ]. Etiology Hallervorden Spatz disease was first described in by two German physicians, Hallervorden and Spatz, as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by cerebral iron deposition and hence the name so.

Individuals with classical disease have a more rapid progression of symptoms. Further investigation and insights were provided by Malmstrom-Groth and Kristensson [12] and Jankovic et al.

It can also help you retain your current abilities. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlations: Approximately two-thirds of these patients will have retinal degeneration. Molecular genetic testing for the full gene sequence of the PANK2 gene is the gold standard way to make this diagnosis. Such mutations result in an autosomal recessive inborn error hallervirden coenzyme A metabolism called PANK2— associated neurodegeneration. Progressive cognitive failure occurs in association with gradual motor impairment.


Hallervorden-Spatz disease

The treatment of patients with HSD remains directed toward symptomatic findings. Seizures — Have been described. Genetic counseling is recommended for families with a history of the disease.

This gene encodes the enzyme pantothenate kinase, and mutations in the gene lead to an inborn error of vitamin B5 pantothenate metabolism.

Because of the limited ability to protect themselves during falls, children may have repeated injury to the face and chin. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease but usually will not show symptoms.

How to cite this article: Neurological examination revealed mild dysarthria, no rigidity or spasticity was detected. The disorder is caused by a mutant PANK2 gene located at the chromosomal locus: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord.

Drugs that reduce the levels of iron in the body iron chelation have been attempted to treat individuals with PKAN. The use of systemic chelating agents, such as desferrioxamine, has been attempted to remove excess iron from the brain, but it didn’t prove beneficial.